The spiritual world is highly significant in Maori culture, it was a belief that shaped their culture, it shaped their perception on the world. In 1810 the Tamaki isthmus was hit by an influenza epidemic, and it wasn’t the first one either. The Maori believed that their land had been invaded by an evil spirit, because previously to European settlement “Maori did not suffer the common infections ailments.” Pg 80. This is significant because it expresses how Maori were unaware, and had no expectation that colonisation would bring so much damage to their population. Diseases such as influenza would have been filtered out during the Polynesian migration. This results in Maori not being immune to such diseases, therefor making a much more significant impact of declining the population. Maori later abandoned the land that had been infected by influenza in hopes of “ameliorating the impact of epidemics.” This highlights how afraid Maori were of evil spirits, and that to them leaving infected land was a smarter option than staying. The epidemics are significant because they communicate how Maori had to survive the changing world. Since they never had to face such painful epidemics before settlement, “Maori medical practise is rather sparse” which highlights how it is most likely that “Maori had a theory of illness based on spiritual causation.” Unfortunately this meant they were unprepared for the invasion of disease, they knew no other way to fight it other than leaving their infected lands.









Kaupapa Maori and Matauranga Maori


When we think about contemporary experiences we don’t really think they can effect our way of life,  we think this because it is so modern to us. This is simply not the case; the contemporary experience of colonisation, urbanisation and deculturation that Maori would have endured has introduced negative statistics. We’re talking about poor health status and underachievement in education. Kaupapa Maori is a value that is inspired by those contemporary experiences, it’s a value that focuses on “sequences of knowledge-creating actions, and practices of knowledge inquiry which give expression to transformative ideals.” P31 This simply means that Kaupapa Maori is a value based on taking action on diminishing the negative statistics. Comparing Kaupapa Maori to Matauranga Maori it understood that Matauranga Maori is described as “a body of continuum knowledge.” It is described as a value that was brung to Aotearoa and that it has the ability to grow. With the experience of Western colonisation alot of knowledge was lost but it also allowed new knowledge to grow. Matauranga Maori “frames knowledge in certain ways” Pg33-34 unlike Kaupapa Maori there isn’t set actions or drive. It is simply a label for the term “body of knowledge.”Pg 33



When first looking at this artwork we can see western ideals blending into Maori culture. Using Mickey mouse which is an iconic symbol of western culture expresses a creative knowledge that is passing into another culture. By the transparent figures that link Mickey mouse to To Tiki Tu Meke represent reverse colonisation. It is a expression of Kaupapa Maori values, taking actions and over coming dominant western values. This art work is a symbol of a journey for making Maori culture to have a voice. Over all this artwork has Matauranga Maori as it is a vesal of knowledge and it allows the viewer to interpret the art how ever like, based off their whakapapa.

New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies. Vol 47, No.2, 2012 

Frizzell, Richard John. Micky to Tiki Tu, 1997, One off gouache on lithographic proofing sheet, 48 x 73 cm, Contemporary & Modern Art, International Art Centre, Auckland.










Nga Putake o te Tikanga – Underlying principles and values

The centred theme throughout the Nga Putake o te Tikanga is to explain key behaviors and principles that are seen as extremly important in Maori culture. The texts reveals how each princeable is of value to their society. Along side that, the text also explains how Maori culture deals with behavior that is considered incorrect. A key concept that is explain in the text is understanding the word of value. Value vs. value. Despite the spelling of these two words being the same, the meanings hold a contrast to each other. “We are dealing with two separate words” Mead, H. 28. To be able hold something physical in your hand of worth, is considered to be a value. Maori culture explores the worth of something valuable in a much more spiritual wayThe aspiration of spiritual value that Maori strive for is of great importance in their society. For a certain type of behavoir to be seen as “of value”, emphases how princeables are important to Maori culture. It is like saying to be able achieve this type of behavior would be likened to holding something that was physically valuable.

Mead, H. (2003). Tikanga Maori; Living by Maori Values. NZ: Huia.




Works Cited

Olivia Lamb




Blog:  olivialambworld.wordpress.com

works cited:

Mirzoeff, Nicholas. “The changing world. “How to See the World. Pelicanbooks 2016. 214-226.

Feldkamp, Lisa, “Will Polar bears die out because of Climate Change”Cool Green Science, 3rd December 2013 http://blog.nature.org/science/2013/12/03/what-science-polar-bear/

“Two (degrees) C New York City” Menilmonde, Clair and Max,  http://menilmonde.com/two-c-new-york/, 2016.

New Scientist, “Polar Bears shift from seals to bird eggs as ice melts” 12 May 2017 https://www.newscientist.com/article/2130821-polar-bears-shift-from-seals-to-bird-eggs-as-arctic-ice-melts/

WWF Global, “Polar bear status, distribution & population” WWF. 2014http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/where_we_work/arctic/wildlife/polar_bear/population/

BUND Friends of the Earth Germany, Animal Protection, Print, Scholz & Friends.BUND FRIENDS OF THE EARTH GERMANY http://adsarchive.com/more/bund/

Worldwildlife, Biodiversity And Biosafety Awareness, Polar bear. Print, Ogilvy Advertisement agency. WWF Campaign by Ogilvy – 06/2010. https://adsoftheworld.com/campaign/wwf-ogilvy-06-2010_0

Researching The issues

Starting my research for climate change and how animals are effected I decided to look at Mirzoeff, How to See the World. In the chapter our changing world, Mirzoeff explains since human existence populations of bird species has rapidly reduced. “On the Pacific Island of Tonga alone, 26 species of bird have been documented as becoming extinct since the arrival of humans some 2,800 years ago.” This highlights to me how quickly our world can change, and how human existence endangers animals natural habitat.  There is always the possibility that these species of bird could have been saved if mankind was actively aware of their venerability.  John James Audubon who was a bird painter and ornithologist was amazed by the beauty of the flocks of passenger pigeons, he often would paint their beauty.  “He calculated that there were no fewer than 1,115,136,000 passenger pigeons in the single ‘flock’ that he saw” This in Kentucky in the year 1813, and in the year 1914 the last passenger pigeon died in a zoo in Cincinnati. This is because this type of pigeon was very popular for hunting, every time they passed people waited with guns. It is so depressing to think that the last of this species died in a zoo, it was kept locked up for our entertainment. It’s sickening to think how twisted that is, we are responsible of the death of the species how many other animals have suffered because of us? This research has informed me that humans have an extreme impact on the environment especially when we are disrespectful. I have learnt that mankind takes so much for granted, we take and take. When it’s too late that’s when we feel guilty, we don’t stop to think this behavior is damaging. It’s our responsibility to make a positive difference and help reduce the damage we have already created.

Reflection Of Research And Final Art Work

Across this assignment I have learnt lots of valid information that has made me care more about our planet than I did before I started. I have come to the understand that how world is endangered, the world I live in today is going to be completely different to the word that will become reality in 50 years time. The ever changing world we live in is going to change with or with out humanity’s help. Mankind is simply speeding up the process of climate change by abusing our planet. Visually we can not see how our world is changing on a daily basis, sometimes for us to understand we have to see the damage when it’s too late. Visual activism that I have research uses visual metaphors to generate harsh reality. This therefor impacts the audience into understanding if we do not take action now, we are allowing those harsh realities become our future. From looking at visual activism from WWF, BUND and Peoples Climate March all of which are well known organisations which want to help change the world for the better.  I have also looked at a short film which expresses a flooded New York City as a possible reality. All these works together have given me inspiration to create my digital artwork. I wanted to express a world that feels isolating. So I decided to centre the ice burg which introduces the ideas surrounding climate change, having the dominating colour black sky and sea represents pollution. Finally at the root of the ice burg I have subtlety placed “population: 0” I have done this to push my design further so that my ideas are communicated clearly. In conclusion this project has taught to be more aware of what my impact is on the planet. It has taught me to stand up and make a difference.

 Lamb, Olivia. The beginning of our Reality. Minimalist Design. 4th June 2017.

The changing world we live in: Researching existing activism

Enter aBUND Friends of the Earth Germany, Animal Protection, Print, Scholz & Friends.BUND FRIENDS OF THE EARTH GERMANY http://adsarchive.com/more/bund/ caption

The use of symbolism is emphasised so heavily in this image. The focal point of the bear trapped between the two arms represents how time is running out. The small space develops this idea of tension between the animal and the end of his life. This makes the viewer feel uneasy. The viewer sees the bear as scared and isolated. The use of earthy dark tones give the image a morbid mood, and with the pop of red we connect that to the idea of danger. With out the small capture on the top left corner when looking at this work it is communicating strongly how there are endangered animals on our planet that need our help to protect them. The juxtaposition between the bear and man made clock creates a visual metaphor, that mankind created the problem to begin with. This metaphor directly enforces us to understand that mankind plays a huge part in destroying our planet. Posters likes this one remind us that we are not alone, that we shouldn’t be only looking out for ourselves. Therefor it is up to man kind help fix the damage that we created.

Worldwildlife, Biodiversity And Biosafety Awareness, Polar bear. Print, Ogilvy Advertisement agency. WWF Campaign by Ogilvy – 06/2010. https://adsoftheworld.com/campaign/wwf-ogilvy-06-2010_0

Graffiti is often found in abandoned, urban structures and is often stereotyped as offensive. Using this a a motif WWF is able to express how by not respecting our planet, we are also not respecting the animals that also live here. By using small type it allows the audience to be naturally drawn to the issue they are presenting through the use of the polar bears and the graffiti. This allows the viewer to soak in the issues and create their own opinion about what the activism poster is about. The heretical question poses the idea that it has to take something extremly significant to change our behaviour that we have towards the planet. WWF are visually explaining that the harm towards the planet and how we disrespect is pretty much as offensive as if we were to actually to graffiti animals. The question posed makes the viewer think about the decisions they make that could be disrespectful to the planet. This is why this poster is so effective, it makes the viewer think.



Voicing my ideas

The environment is an ever changing landscape that will outlive all of us. Human kind might be slowly killing our planet, but our mindset is only focused on the time that we individually are spending on earth. We don’t think about the future generations enough, they are the ones who will be affected the most by the damage that our generation and the generations before us have created. Time is only thing that physically can shows us the damage we have created, it affects more than just our future generations, it affects the animals on our planet too. We often think we are alone on this planet, that we only need to look out for ourselves, our kind. We have the responsibility to look after and try to save the animals that are dying off because of the damage we have inflicted onto the environment. Human kind is like a catalyst to the natural selection of our world. The environment needs a spokes person, a voice. There are already so many different organisations out there that are trying to make a difference. I wanted to share my voice on the topic and represent issues that I believe in. I strongly want to research into how animals are effected and by climate change and how they are adapting in order to survive.





Who is this ‘me’ anyway?
If you choose this question you will explore identity – how we represent ourselves.  You can focus on either how our representations of ourselves have changed over time or how marginalised groups have represented themselves to confront mainstream culture.

The word identity is an interesting one. I believe that through dramatic events or even horrific events our identity can change.  I definitely believe that from the start of 2017 to where I am now I am a completely different person to who I was december last year. I know for a fact I represent myself differently,  the time between January first and now has truly shaped who I’ve become. The reason why I chose the question of identity is because for myself I struggle grasping onto the idea of who I truly am. In fact, I believe there are a lot of people out there who don’t know who they are, or struggle to figure out who they are. Overtime people have used painted portraits to represent them-selves to society, to show off their class you could say. The idea of portraits or even self portraits allowed someone’s identity to be captured and then displayed. Through this artwork a viewer would be able to understand who this person is. What makes self portraits different to selfies? In my personal opinion there isn’t a lot difference if your only looking at the concept and what they both represent to society. Both a selfie and a self portrait represent a someones identity to the attended audience. Both will tell story about the person who is on display. The main difference between a selfie and a self portrait one is appreciated where as the other one tolerated. A self portrait had the same intentions of the classic selfie; to represent ourselves. The way a self portrait is created, through talent and art is what makes it appreciated.

The reason why I chose to focus on this question is because I believe that people’s identity can be represented in way that isn’t true. I wanted to respond to the question by focusing on identity of women, in particle the identity of women in film. Film has the power to transform how we see the world. They have the power to captivate us and transport us into other worlds. With such a power film has the ability to represent anyone how ever they please, but yet women are not portrayed as equally as men are. The mainstream culture that has been developed over the years by films has created a ‘mould’ that women should fit into. Women become stereotyped, and typecast to playing certain roles in hollywood. The way women have been identified in film isn’t a true reflection of reality. For me there hasn’t been a single female character on screen that I’ve been able to relate to. The stereotypes of women don’t match the identities of women in my own society. But why? Why do films continue to add to the predicable mainstream culture? I’ve watch so many films but now watching films has becomes less enjoyable, I can see how the movie will turn out because films follow patterns. Some common patterns you’ll see through out any super hero movie; Hero (male) meets girl, hero falls in love with girl. Girl is unable to save herself, hero has to save girl. Hero saves world. Villain escapes so that a sequel can be created. This question about identity I want to tackle it by expressing my concern for the 1. The facts and my opinion about the lack of representation of women on and behind camera 2. The facts and my opinion about how women are represented in film. and 3.

It is an impossible task to define my identity, I am not simply one thing. I am not a stereotype, I don’t just fit into one category. So why do my pairs define me by the use of stereotypes? Despite how I would like my-self to represented to society, it is always going to be different to how people will believe to see me as. People only want to see what they want to believe. The prejudicious judgement that everyone subconsciously does, is because we are wired to associate certain behavior with stereotypes. I truly believe that the film industry has the power to manipulate how we see the world, and in having such power, films have the ability to shape how we should each other in society.

The film industry is the one of the main influences for mainstream culture. It is one of the most influential industries in the world, films entertain us, they are powerful, beautiful and unforgettably imaginative. With the ability of being able to transport audiences and teach us lessons you could say the power of films is beyond any political figure. That doesn’t mean there aren’t any flaws, in fact the film industry has a number of social issues that need to be addressed.


Mainstream culture that is generated from films is something our society is heavily influenced by.  Films have great power over society, they transport audiences into other worlds, they can teach us lessons. They “reflect” society or societies values. “The world we see on screen is not a true reflection of reality.” – Ted talks. If the film industry reflected the true reality of society women would be represented as equally as men. Instead women becomes a marginalise group. The lack of representation and the way they are represented on screen strips away women’s identity. Stacy Smith a gender equality activist conducted a study between 2007-2015 analysing the data of speaking roles in 800 films. For a character to be included in this data all they had to say was one line. At the end of her research there were 35,205 characters who spoke in films and the ratio turned out out to be 2.3:1 men to women. “If you compare our results from a small sample of films taking from 1946-1955 there has been no change in over half of a century, but yet women are half of the population.” – Ted talks. The lack of change in over half a century highlights how this is a depressing issue that needs to be vocalised. There needs to be more women in the film industry, and the lack of women is inexcusable. We are half the population and should be represented equally to men. That’s not the only issue that identity of women face on screen. The diverse representation of women is also lacking in representation in film. By looking at the data from 2015’s top 100 films is becomes apparent that race, ethnicity, disability and gender are also all marginalised in film. 48 films didn’t have black or african american female speaking roles, 70 films didn’t have asian or asian american female speaking roles, 84 films didn’t express a women with a disability and 93 films didn’t express lesbian, bisexual or transgender women. Our world, the real world, it is a place full of diversity. There are no two people who are the same. The film industry needs to understand they are contributing to a huge socially issue, but they also need to understand is that they are at the core to be able to fix it.

Another issue that damages women’s identity on film is how they are portrayed to audiences. The way women are portrayed constructs false ideologies of how women should act, it develops stereotypes and worse of all women are 3x more likely to be sexulised in film.



Society defines identity through the use of stereotypes, everyone belongs somewhere. In my opinion stereotypes are the construct that fails identity. It creates unreasonable expectations, moulds that not everyone feels accepted in. It hides the idea of true identity


Films strips away individuality by following stereotypical values, and for women in film they become a marginalise group. Women are not portrayed on screen equally as men. When women are represented on screen, they are stereotyped, type casted and portrayed to fit a ‘mould’. This ‘mould’ isn’t a true reflection of reality, and therefor creates a mainstream ideology. The ‘idea’ of identity doesn’t exist since it is only an idea. This is a social issue that many artists have addressed to highlight how it’s unfair to continue to mis-represent women in film.


If we look closer at the question “who is this ‘me’ anyway?” it opens up quite a broad idea which is hard to answer. For my essay I believe that it is important to focus on representation of ones-self. My opinion and firsts thoughts about the question were what topics could I talk about. I knew I wanted to express the ideas about representation and how we are not always represented fairly. One way I could express that is through how others have the ability to express who we are as people. The film industry is very powerful they have the ability to represent our society in positive or negative ways, they can transform opinions about how people should see the world. Films can teach us lessons but they can also develop mainstream culture which is there for inflected into our society.  The power that the film industry has over being able to represent women how ever they please, is wrong. It strips away the ability to create relatable identities. Films have the ability to represent who we are as a society, they give us an identity which is somewhat relatable.

Reflecting communications


Olivia Lamb


Course 237130

Assessment 1. Looking with Fresh Eyes: Our Changing World


544 words



Works cited:

Mirzoeff, Nicholas. “Introduction”. How to See the World. London: Pelican, 2015. 1-27.


Kaplan, Isaac. “How long do you need to look at art to get it?” Artsy, Jan 26th 2017.



Clarke, Michael. “language and meaning” Verbalising the visual: translating Art and Design into words. Lausanne, Switerland: AVA Publishing 2007,Pp 20-27


































Listening to David Bowie was how I was introduced into the course of communications. His relevance was to visually describe identity; Bowie constantly changed his depiction of himself to the world. The lecturer was able to use him as common example that clearly outlined our topic for this assignment. They did this because they could easily lead into how Cindy Sherman as she also plays with identity. From reading How to see the world Mirzoeff, Nicholas. I was able to get a perspective about how much our world has changed. By firstly focusing on the famous photo Blue Marble, which was the first photograph of our planet ever taken. Schmitt, Jack. Blue Marble. 1972, photograph, Nasa. How we see the world, London Pelican, 3. This photo was important because it is the first time people would have seen the place they call home. “The photograph mixed the known and the new in a visual format that made it comprehensible and beautiful.” (Nicholas, Mirzoeff. 4)This photo allowed people to identify that the place where we lived was beautiful. It only took 40 years since this image of our world was taken and published for our world to seriously change. Increase of population and increase of access to the Internet have contributed to how our world is changing. 1972 had 3.8 billion people living on this planet; in 2017 we have 7.5 billion people living on earth. From 2014 3 billion of those people have become connected online. From such as large amount of people being online we begin to understand that the online world is an extension of who we are. The way we depict ourselves online isn’t never a true reflection of ourselves, we choose what we want people to see about ourselves. We do this because the online world lets us, we can filter our lives make them appear better. Connecting back to David Bowie and how he communicates himself to us, his ability to change who he was and how we identified him is exactly the same thing that we can do online. Going to the gallery connected all the knowledge from this topic together. How we perceive ourselves to others is what Cindy is significantly trying to communicate to us through her work. The clown series is the strongest series when it comes to communications perception of ourselves. This was because Sherman was able to produce work with painted on emotions. By doing so the psychology of emotions is presented through the backgrounds of the photographs.  “It is sometimes thought interpreting images of food processor is easier than interpreting works of fine arts” Clarke, Michael. As the viewer we struggle to be able to relate to the clowns, as we can not idenity who they are. Sherman has striped them of of their identity. “Studying an artwork for an extended period of time is an important part of understanding what lurks inside it.” Kalpan, Isaac. We question who are these clowns under the makeup. The clown series makes us think, about who these people are and who we our ourselves. It makes us understand that social media is the the our verison of the clowns make up. Who is the real us, when we take away our lives from online.


Sherman, Cindy. Untitled #414. Photographic. 2003. City Gallery. Wellington. 17349159_1303601159727846_1929290359_o