Week 10 Blog task

Outline some of the issues and considerations regarding appropriation in the context of art and design using Engles Swarzpauls “Dislocating Wiremu and Rau: The wild man in virtual worlds” to support your discussion. (200 words).

Draft your analysis for one of your examples and consider how this links to your other examples/key points (remember, each example should add depth to your overall argument and avoid repetition of ideas). Bring a printout of your draft to class with you this week. After class: upload the draft you brought to class with your notes and peer comments to your blog.





Thesis statement and introduction:

  1. Select an artist, designer, or collectivewithMoananui a Kiwa (Pacific) or Asian whakapapa working within Aotearoa New Zealand whose work talks to their cultural context. Discuss the ways that the maker/s reflect and/or respond to their social, political, cultural, and historical experiences through their work. Explain how hybridity and/or diaspora is addressed in theirwork.

Yona Lee korean born artists who live ins Auckland.





Blog Task week 9

A mixture between two races is commonly defined as hybridity. In attempts to deeply understand the relationship between identity and hybridity you have first understand cultural difference. Homi K. Bhabha explains that “the idea that cultures are diverse & that in some sense the diversity of cultures is a good and positive thing and ought to be encouraged.” Homi further explains that this social attitude creates a “musée imaginaire”. He then reveals that cultural diversity allows a dominant culture to be host “these other cultures are fine, but we must be able to locate them within our grid.” In contrast to this, cultural difference is the attitude that acknowledges the differences between cultures and understands that “Even impossible and counterproductive, to try & fit together different forms of culture & to pretend that they can easily coexist.” Therefore for hybridity to form no one culture can not be dominant, instead two cultures have to come together in what Homi describes “the third space”.  This third space allows something new to grow, it allows a new culture to become essential to society. Homi unpacks the idea that the process of identifying something relates to the process of hybridity. “Bears the the traces of those feelings and practises which inform it.” This essentially means that hybridity uses the process of identification to allow an understanding of the new culture to be originated. Without this process the two cultures won’t be able to merge into something new.


Rutherford, Jonathan. “Identity, community, culture, difference” Lawrence & Wishart London. 1990.




Blog Task week 8

In response to Wall’s critical analysis of the representation of  Maori in the media I have come to the conclusion that stereotypes play a huge role in getting a relatable messages across. In relation to Wall’s text both Ghost Chips and Boy portray Maori as the stereotypical comic Other. Originally this stereotype was derived from colonial times “initial explorers caricatured Maori as having childlike simplicity coupled with a fun-loving disposition.” You can see throughout both examples this stereotype shinning through. In Ghost Chips the clever simplicity of “you know I can’t grab your ghost chips” generates a playful structure to the Ad. By representing this “comic Other” Ayson was able to successfully communicate to his targeted audience, he was aiming to connect to young male Maori drivers. He needed New Zealand to understand that “it was choice to stop a mate from driving drunk”. Comparing this to Boy who also uses the “Comic Other” stereotype, we can understand the structure of 1980’s Maori society. “The film contains a great deal of offhand information about this Maori community. Much of it is about how global pop culture has imposed an imaginary media reality on children’s lives.” Waititi was representing a realistic portrayal of Maori society and people for the times. Deeper ideas such as expressions of lost and grief made audiences understand how reality isn’t picture perfect. Waititi used comedy to simplify the complexities of life, making the audience feel like they are watching the film through the eyes of child rather than an adult. “The comic Other may be seen as a more positive stereotype” and throughout both examples, Maori were portrayed positively.

Week 7 blog task

Throughout the texts many considerations regarding culture and identity were raised. Wendt, Albert looked closely at colonisation in regards to the identity of culture. He writes “Any real understanding of ourselves and our existing cultures calls for an attempt to understand colonialism.” Pg10. This explains that to truely understand a culture and ourselves we must take a valid note of the historical context. Colonialism had the ability to manipulate how a culture saw their world. It allowed the introduction of change to begin, Hau’ofa writes “South Seas, which became virtually synonymous with Paradise, a false concept that we have not successfully shed because it is used to promote the hospitality industry.”Hau’ofa, Pg5. Colonialism shaped shifted  the identity of the Islands to appeal for the tourists rather than the people of the land. With the world we now live in, going back to a world before Colonialism influences is near impossible, the focus should be centred around living in the present. “Our quest should not be for a revival of our past cultures but for the creation of new cultures which are free of the taint of colonialism and based firmly on our own pasts.” This resembles the idea that we have the ability to shape our future, to develop our world. We can’t change the past, we can only take what we have learnt and produce a better future.

“we must not consent to our own abasement” Wendt, Albert. Pg 13. Allowing a thing or someone to bring us down, to make us feel and to be seen as lower. To allow such hypocrisy to control who we are shatters our identity and culture. We must not let others, the world, even ourselves bring us lower.






Final Blog: Hinehihi

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History helps us remember, it keeps relationships that were formed hundreds of years ago alive. History is an important understand of the old world that therefor helps us understand the new world. The story of Hinemihi is powerful, she represents the unity that Maori and Europeans hold together. When Hinemihi was built in the 1880’s, she was made for the purpose of being a meeting house and a place of cultural entertainment for victorian tourists. “Wharekaniwha named her Hinemihi o te Ao Tawhito, or Hinimihi of the old world, emphasising the sense of a ‘new world’ emerging from the old” Engels-Schwarzpaul and Wikitera. Pg 2. This represents the open minds that Maori had by making Hinemihi to be a symbol of the changing world. Even in her carvings there is a sense of adaption to the new world “Hinimihi’s carvings represent significant ancestral genealogies. They also show signs of Western influence and changes in the economic environment: the ancestors wear bowler hats and victorian shoes.”Engels-Schwarzpaul and Wikitera. Pg 2. This reinforces the social context of Hinemihi, she was made to be approachable by Europeans, instead of intimidating visitors. By allowing Western Culture to be apart of Hinemihi herself it allows a physical bond to be created between the cultures. Therefore the transformation of the new world from the old, created a relationship that would bring new knowledge to both cultures, which results in being a historical value. The action of building Hinemihi represents Kaupapa Maori, she was build for the creation of knowledge. “Kaupapa Maori in this setting is the political motion to allow Maori knowledge, culture and experience to find a voice” Te Ahukaramū Charles Royal. Pg31. This represents Maori exhibiting their culture to the new world to kept it alive. Therefore reminding people of the old world. This is important because of the contemporary experiences Maori had to face such as colonisation. When Hinemihi was first bought to England she was simply a remembrance of paradise, and her function changed often while in the care of the Onslow family. In some ways you could say she was objectified, at one point she was being used for the purpose of storing outdoor furniture. “Our inability to analyse these buildings as architectural ‘objects’ does not preclude their inclusion as actors or artifacts in the ‘narrative’ of Maori nationalism.” D, Brown. Pg2. This represents that Hinemihi shouldn’t be used as an object of western function. She is a narration of Maori culture, a voice and an ancestor. To call her an object and treat her like one takes away from her identity. This is significant because it also stops Maori culture from being vocalised. “Hinemihi needs her descendants and their visitors in order to interact as a personal being, an ancestor and a host” Graham, Harvey. Pg. 110. Without people protecting her identity she will become forgotten. Hinemihi identity was saved and kept present in tribal memory by Ngati Ranana (Maori community in London.) and her presence in England allows Maori culture and performance to have a voice. In conclusion by understanding Hinemihi and her history it teaches us a lot about the significance of culture and relationships that are bonded through new knowledge. We can understand the significance of art and design by looking at how it’s adapted for the new world, while still representing the old. Overall Hinemihi is a significant symbol of the past, the present and the future.



Engels-Schwarzpaul, Chr and Wiktera, Keri-Anne. Take me away…In search of original dwelling. Interstices, a Journal of Architecture and Related Arts. Volume 10.

Brown, Deidre, Nga Paremata Maori: The Architecture of Maori Nationalism. Published online: 06 Jul 2012. 

Te Ahukaramū Charles Royal, New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies. Politics and Knowledge: Kaupapa Maori and Mantaranga Maori  Vol 47, No.2, 2012 

Harvey, Graham. Materiality and Study of Religion: Art work a Relational Rather than a Representational of Art and Buildings. Editors Hutchings, Tim, Mckenzie Joanne. Publisher Routledge 2017. 

Blog 5: Response to “Take me away . . . In search of original dwelling”

Standing out from the whole reading this quote; “An object which has been lost cannot…be remembered” Pg 10 . It Really digs deep about the message that Engles-Swartzpual and Wikitera are conveying. For example Hinemihi was taken from the land of New Zealand when it was sold to Lord Onslow. Even despite her moving across the other side of the world the identity of Hinemihi has still been able to grow and connect people together. She is not lost, in fact Hinemihi symbolises the connection between European and Maori culture that was formed over 127 years ago. The texts main aim is to highlight the importance of these relationships, by having cultural identities from Maori or Samoan overseas, it allows relationships to grow between the nations.


Engels-Schwarzpaul, Chr and Wiktera, Keri-Anne. Take me away…In search of original dwelling. Interstices, a Journal of Architecture and Related Arts. Volume 10.


Blog: 4 Representation of Maori through European Artists in New Zealand

WALTER WRIGHT 1866-1933 THE BURNING OF THE ‘ BOYD ‘ IN WHANGAROA HARBOUR Oil on canvas 42 x 62 Signed & dated W. Wright ’08

When first looking at this painting the first thing the viewer will notice is the burning flames that engulf the European ship. The eye travels down the canvas to where the ship meets the water. Completely surrounded by Maori canoes, this visually represents a conflict, and that Maori have full control as there is no European representation. The absence of Europeans also suggests that they have been killed. Walter Wright has painted this picture that shows Maori as savages, there is no hidden clue to why Maori have attacked this ship and there are no European survivors. The reason of the attack of the Boyd in the first place was to seek revenge as the local Chiefs son was whipped during the Boyd’s journey, Author unknown Pg: 16. Wrights is controlling the story, only representing the ‘barbaric’ side of the Maori’s and not the Europeans. “Europeans were taking over aspects of the culture and history of the people whom they had supplanted.” Bell, Leonard. Pg 144. This explains to us that the Europeans hand picked the history and the culture of the Maori’s that they believed they should represent to society to explain the past. Often enough the painting falsely represented actual story. In this case Wright hasn’t depicted that this Maori Tribe actually tricked the Europeans onto entering the ship by wearing sailor uniforms that they took from the crew they had killed earlier that day. The Tribe would of been smart enough not to arrive to the ship in Canoes or wearing traditional Maori clothing because the Europeans would have seen their attack coming from a mile away.



Bell, Leonard. The representation of the Maori by European Artists in New Zealand, ca. Collage of Art association.

Wright, Walter. The Burning of the ‘Boyd in Whangaroa Harbour. 1908. Oil on canvas. Auckland city Gallery. A Colonial view, paintings of early New Zealand. Auckland City Gallery, 1958. Pg17.

Author unknown, A Colonial View paintings of early New Zealand. Auckland city gallery 1958.




These past 4 weeks have really opened my eyes to Maori culture. Despite growing up in New Zealand I have never been taught such a deep knowledge of Maori culture and history. In the early weeks of CCC, learning about the significance of the different aspect of a Marea I discovered this is very interesting to me as I myself have visited a Marea. Despite this I was never fully educated on the importance of a Marea to Maori culture in the western education system. After learning and discovering how enriching Maori culture is, I can look back at the memories from visiting the Marea and appreciate it so much more.